This trait is also inherited from the Pontic first.
The worldview of the ancient Ukrainians became an integral part of the mentality of their descendants. National images of the world (often subconscious), stereotypes of behavior, mental reactions or evaluations of certain events or people are always a reflection of the ethnic mentality, ie what can be called the “spirit of the people”. Cosmopolitan culture, which until recently was called international, denationalizes the individual, deprives him of a sense of patriotism and is therefore harmful to the nation.
National differences are, first of all, differences in the psychology of thinking, which is reflected primarily in language, as well as in mental creativity, which follows from the mentality of the ethnos. According to Dmytro Ovsyanyko-Kulykivsky, the brightness of national traits is directly proportional to the level of intellectual talent, and therefore, “genius is always deeply national in the psychological sense.” Some subjects, “who are mentally below average, the more mentally retarded, and idiots are devoid of national characteristics.”
Thus, the ‘national character is most fully reflected in the culture, in the intellect of the nation. But we should not forget that any generalizing characteristics of an ethnos will always be relative in comparison with another ethnos.
Ethnic components of Ukrainian character
Before considering the influence on the formation of the Ukrainian character of different ethnic groups that have lived or simply passed through the lands of Ukraine for thousands of years, let us pay attention to the following facts:
“Every drop of foreign ethnic blood spreads through the veins of the whole nation after several dozen generations. Every modern person theoretically has 1048,576 ancestors only at the time depth of 20 generations (about 500 years) ”. According to research by a Czech biologist of the XIX century. Mendel, blood groups are subject to the laws of heredity. Each ethnic group is more willing to accept blood related to him than foreign. Paleoanthropological data and hematological groups of modern peoples give the right to consider Ukrainians related to the people of Northern Italy, the Balkans, Switzerland, southern Germany, southern England, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, some regions of France (90% of Ukrainians have blood group “A”, “AB” and O ”, but very little of group“ B. ”Compare with Russians and Mongols, in whom group“ B ”is 80%). In every nation there are basic ethnic components – primary (Yuri Lypa’s term) and impurities, ie a small number of foreign ethnic genes. According to Mendel’s law, impurities in the anthropological race are less valuable than the primary ones, so they will be eliminated very quickly (ie, expelled, excluded).
In Ukraine in the twentieth century. it is useless to look for research in ethnogenesis and ethnopsychology. If there were such works, they were often simply destroyed. So it happened with the work of Dr. Yuri Lipa, a doctor who in 1945 p. was killed by the Enkavedists on the doorstep of his house. His book, The Purpose of Ukraine, published in Lviv in 1938, was almost unknown in Soviet Ukraine. Now we have a publication of this work, made in Lviv in 1992 p. Prosvita publishing house.
Yuriy Lypa identifies 4 components of Ukrainian protoculture and characterizes them in detail: these are the Trypillia, Pontic, Gothic, and Kyiv-Russian primates.
1. Trypillia culture has an ethnic connection with the culture of Asia Minor, ie more southern. These were people who hardened in harsher climatic conditions than the Asia Minors. They bequeathed to Ukrainians their patience, silent courage, modesty, caution, stubbornness in achieving the goal and the ability to steadfastly accept failures. “These are characters circulating in the blood of modern Ukrainians, and their deeds and achievements can always be revived.”
It was the Trypillia civilization that formed proto-Ukrainian towns and villages, built roads, ramparts, and divided the land into fields and fields. From them we have the psychology of a farmer, and respect for women, and family customs, and a democratic social order.
2. Pontic protoculture is the culture of the northern Black Sea coast, where the population was mixed with the Hellenic ethnic type. Olbia and Pantikapaion have existed for over a thousand years. Their culture was closely connected with the culture of the Trypillians, ie to some extent inherited from them their cults (eg. Kostruba, the Mother Goddess, Polelia, etc.). The Pontic culture is close, and sometimes simply identified with the Scythian. From them Ukrainians inherited courage, entrepreneurship, creativity, desire for beauty. As Professor Shcherbyna wrote, the individualism of the Ukrainian opposes herding, but his devotion to his favorite cause motivates him to find accomplices and like-minded people. Hence the attraction of Ukrainians to various unions, communities, gangs, and so on. This trait is also inherited from the Pontic first.
3. Gothic influences, known in the second century. AD, came to Ukraine through Volhynia from the Ostrogothic Empire. However, modern research proves that the influence of the Goths in our historiography was somewhat exaggerated. From them could be inherited stability of character, military and state discipline, compliance with agreements, organization.
An interesting combination of Gothism with Hellenism (Ponticism) gave the type of Zaporozhian Cossack, which surprised foreign historians: people are military and at the same time traders, sell fish and fur, and so on. Catherine II envied the Cossack ability to trust my paper review pursue its economic policy, and the Polish historian wondered where Bohdan Khmelnytsky had the means to wage war.
4. Kyiv-Russian first. The old Ukrainian state of Kievan Rus lasted about 700 years. From it, Ukrainians became aware of their political traditions, which were preserved by the princely elite even in the Lithuanian state, and also continued by the Zaporozhian Cossacks until the abolition of the Hetmanate. This spirit of freedom and national pride began to be most suppressed in the eighteenth century. Even older people passed on this deep Ukrainian patriotism to their descendants, but sad times were coming for Ukrainianness.
Yuriy Lypa goes on to consider the impurities that he considers to be less valuable than the first ones in the national character, but notes that they cannot be neglected.
Impurities can be of two types: those found in anthropology (physiological), and those that leave a spiritual imprint on the national character (impregnation).
An important role for impregnation is the psychological state of the people, their attitude to their neighbors, their perception or non-perception of another ethnic group.
Ukrainians were very reluctant to marry members of other ethnic groups. To combine her destiny with a stranger, a Ukrainian girl needed to see the commonality of his moral norms with Ukrainian customs and law and order. The attitude of this foreigner to Ukraine also plays an important role. Ukrainian men married foreigners even less often.
Thus, for Ukrainians, a strong obstacle to merging with the nomads was absolute reluctance and hatred for destroyers, rapists, robbers, and there is much evidence of this in the chronicles. Therefore, we have every reason (including Mendel’s laws) to say that this psychological rejection of nomadic ethnic groups (Tatars, Pechenegs, Mongols, etc.) was an extremely repulsive force of foreign elements, which were characterized by a lower level of culture compared to settled people.
Their Muslim religion was also an obstacle to the perception of Iranian and Caucasian admixtures, although the influence of these ethnic groups remained insignificant among the people of the Azov Primorye, Donetsk, and Kuban. Militancy, independence, and rudeness are considered to be a characteristic feature left by these ethnic groups.
Insignificant in the Ukrainian nation are the admixtures of the Celtic and Norman ethnic groups, which are also characterized as militant, poorly organized, but the most creative elements (Celtic-Scythians, Vikings).
Roman and Thracian impurities affected mainly in the field of law. “Roman law” was popular among the Zaporozhian Cossacks, although they had their own ancient legal norms. Roman and Thracian ethnic influences are especially noticeable in the character of southern Ukrainians, in the Carpathians, Transnistria, and Bukovina.
Jewish admixtures had little effect on Ukrainian anthropology, as they did not have a specific anthropological type (eg, the presence of Jews among blacks, Chinese, etc.), but added some mediating abilities to Ukrainian psychology, although these influences were insignificant.
Many studies, especially Russian ones, have greatly exaggerated the role of Polish, Lithuanian, Hungarian, and German factors in Ukrainian ethnic psychology and anthropology.
The consideration of Russian (Muscovite) impurities deserves special attention. Yuriy Lypa notes: “Several dozen Ural-Altai nomadic tribes without culture and state were defeated by the Kyiv and later Novgorod cultural leaders in the 10th – 12th centuries. and Christianized, imposing on them the liturgical language of Kyiv, serfdom (for better economic gain) and a name that indicated belonging to Kyiv-Rus (“Russian”). The Mongol enslavement, which lasted in them the longest of all European nations, gave them a common deep sense of the sanctity of power, even the most brutal, but contempt for the individuality of their own and others. Yuriy Lypa further concludes that “Muscovites were too weak an individual to influence spiritually. The impregnation on their part was very insignificant and left no traces. “
Regarding the formation of the Moscow ethnos, we have a lot of works by both Russian and foreign authors of the XIX – XX centuries, who note that the national character and psychology of Russians has its own characteristics, developed under the greater influence of Finno- Ugric and Tatar-Mongolian ethnic groups. than the Slavic. The most famous of these studies are the works of J. Fletcher (XVII century), K. Abel (professor at Oxford University, XIX century), M. Danilevsky, V. Klyuchevsky, M. Hrushevsky, G. Fedotov, E. Ilyina , V. Novodvorskaya and others.
According to scientific data, the anthropological impurity of other people’s firstborn disappears in a relatively short time. For example, take the fact that the yellow race (Chinese) is completely cleansed of white impurities. The same can be said about the Ukrainian ethnic group, among which there are no more impurities of the Tatar type, which had an impact for a relatively short time, but did not leave significant traces in the psyche.
Sociopsychic features of the Ukrainian character
Sociopsychic components of Ukrainian character are closely connected with ethnopsychic ones. The structure of the Ukrainian nation is complex. These are four types: Nordic, Pontic, Dinaric and Ostian.
In ancient times, when society developed naturally, these types by their nature, innate abilities and their role in the life of the people corresponded to four castes or social strata.